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AQA A Level Sample Student Workbook

AQA A Level Sample Student Workbook

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Lesson 13: The i

The two main forms of organisation in what we term the cultural Industries are:

Horizontal integration

Institutions purchasing companies operating in the same sector of economic activity to reduce competition. Examples might include Murdoch’s Sky company purchasing the rival satellite company BSB to eliminate competition for audience. This has enabled him to achieve a virtual monopoly of satellite broadcasting in the UK despite the efforts of cable broadcasters such as Virgin and BT.

Vertical integration

Institutions purchase companies that are part of the different stages of the production/distribution chain. This activity can be both downstream – a Film and TV production company such as Fox purchased TV channels that show its productions - or upstream where a distribution company buys up a production company. We might also consider LiveNation that represents artists and promotes their concert tours but also owns Ticketmaster that sells the tickets. Essentially this system means that the institution – often a holding company run by lawyers and financiers – can make money at all stages of the chain.

Sony own film production companies and music labels that market the film soundtracks. They make consoles and the games that are played on them, often based on films they have made.

Lesson 14: The i and press regulation

Any consideration of the organization of the newspaper industry takes us rapidly into issues of purpose and role and from there into the nature of the impact of newspaper products on the thin king and behavior of their readership.

We have seen that newspapers are created by a series of mediation by journalists, editors and owners into the reporting of events. Our ‘news’ is a highly mediated product.

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