In the summer of 1988, a major moment in the renaissance of American feature film animation occurred: Who Framed Roger Rabbit (the Walt Disney studio did not include the question mark) was released. The film was an adaptation of Gary K. Wolf’s novel, Who Censored Roger Rabbit?
A story of power and control over the Los Angeles transport system, the film can be watched as a film noir and as a buddy movie and as a postmodern movie in terms of its integration of, and reference to, various American animated film characters. Does that sound familiar in light of the Ernest Cline novel, and subsequent Steven Spielberg film adaptation, Ready Player One?
Race and racism are powerful cultural challenges that America grapples with daily and even in a movie as diverting and fanciful as Roger Rabbit, its generic work as a film noir allows the film to explore something about cultural integration and how possible it is.
Roger Rabbit is a Hollywood movie through and through and it certainly has a ‘happy’ ending’ but, as film scholar Richard Dyer has noted in his essay Entertainment and Utopia, what movies offer us as entertainment is a hugely appealing version of all of
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When Wade Watts enters the Distracted Globe nightclub in Ready Player One, Steven Spielberg’s movie adaptation of Ernest Cline’s novel, he walks right past The Joker. Today it is almost enough to